DENTAL TRIBUNE The World’s Dental Newspaper · South Asia Edition Published in India www.dental-tribune.in 05/21 Saliva test For COVID-19 diagnosis and severity prediction Airborne transmission WHO statement on airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Mobile apps COVID-19 response by mobile apps in India Clean-O-Denture Clean-O-Denture – a device to improve denture hygiene – Dr. Pranit Bora ” Page 02 ” Page 03 ” Page 04 ” Page 06 The changing goalposts of vaccine effectiveness by Dr Ameet Revankar, Dental Tribune South Asia The measured efficacy/ effectiveness of the vaccine is only a guide for approval and not a benchmark for claiming superiority of one vaccine over another. Unknowns are a norm in the uncertain pandemic world. When vaccines were first announced for mass distribution, their efficacy and effectiveness were widely debated. Efficacy refers to the ability of the vaccine to prevent symptomatic disease in the trial participants, whereas effectiveness refers to the same in the real-world setting. One amongst the forerunners was the viral vector-based Oxford- AstraZeneca vaccine known by various names in different regions - Covishield, Vaxzevria. The efficacy of this vaccine was reported to be ranging from 50–80% as per trial data under different dosages/ intervals. the mRNA-based When vaccines (Pfizer BioNtech and Moderna) vaccines were approved for use in the United States, they showed more than 95% efficacy. The real-world effectiveness of these mRNA- based vaccines also showed an effectiveness above 90% in symptomatic disease1. As vaccine recipients, we are all desiring vaccines that have higher effectiveness. preventing vaccine‘s the However, in preventing effectiveness infections also ‚breakthrough‘ depends on external factors such as the kind of population being vaccinated and their exposure levels. The apparent effectiveness of the vaccines is an outcome heavily dependent on the levels of exposure to the virus. It is virtually impossible to assess the true efficacy of the vaccines unless challenge trials are designed wherein the trial participants are deliberately exposed to the virus, which It is virtually impossible to assess the true efficacy of the vaccines unless challenge trials are designed wherein the trial participants are deliberately exposed to the virus, which understandably is unethical. (Image: canva.com) Author: 6 0 0 0 - b r e a k t h r o u g h - c o v i d - cases-among-fully-vaccinated- americans.html 2. in on Pritchard E, Matthews P, Stoesser N et. Al. Impact of vaccination SARS-CoV-2 cases the community: a population-based study using the UK’s COVID-19 Infection survey. Available at https:// w w w.me d r x iv.org/conte nt/ 10.1101/2021.04.22.21255913v1. Accessed 24/04/2021 it is unethical. understandably Furthermore, is pertinent to note that the more vaccine coverage in the community, the lesser exposure would translate into better effectiveness and vice versa. Thus, the measured efficacy/ effectiveness of the vaccine is only a guide for approval and not a benchmark for claiming superiority of one vaccine over another. the AstraZeneca The recent paper from the UK confirms this fact wherein both and Pfizer vaccines were found to be equally effective in preventing symptomatic disease. Akin to the preventive mitigation measures with COVID-19 that emphasized community than individual behaviour, the vaccine effectiveness also increases with greater community coverage. With only a minority immunized, the vaccines would fail to protect individuals when the disease incidence or test positivity rate is high during an outbreak, rather is currently which in India. Several reports of immunized individuals developing symptomatic disease, with questions being asked on the effectiveness of vaccines being used in this program (Covishield predominantly and Covaxin in the minority). I am pretty confident that the mRNA-based vaccines would also face a similar fate under the present circumstances. Therefore widespread immunization of the community is required not only to rein in the outbreak at a community level but also to ensure immunized remain protected. Get vaccinated and motivate others to do the same - Together, we can win! that the References 1. CDC says fewer than 6,000 Americans have contracted Covid after being fully vaccinated h t t p s : // w w w . c n b c . c o m /2 0 2 1/0 4/19/c d c - s a y s - t h e r e - h ave - b e e n -l e s s - t h a n - It is virtually impossible to assess the true efficacy of the vaccines unless challenge trials are designed wherein the trial participants are deliberately exposed to the virus, which understandably is unethical. The measured efficacy/ effectiveness of the vaccine is only a guide for approval, and not a benchmark for claiming superiority of one vaccine over another. Dr. Ameet Vaman Revankar Associate Professor, Orthodontics, SDM College of Dental Sciences, Dharwad, India • firstname.lastname@example.org • Follow on Twitter: @drameetr
2 News 05/21 Saliva test for COVID-19 diagnosis and severity prediction by Dr Amisha Parekh, Dental Tribune South Asian The use of saliva has multiple advantages over nasopharyngeal swabs in terms of being non- invasive, its ease of collection without professional help, and without the need for transport media. The growing evidence on saliva being as accurate as nasopharyngeal swab test makes it a potential alternative diagnostic in times like these when testing demands have surged. test especially Saliva has been considered as a potential pool for biomarkers in several diseases for years. Its importance in the diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19 cases has increased multifold in the last twelve months after the pandemic outbreak. and Japan Countries like South Korea, Germany, have implemented saliva testing for COVID-19 detection and in the USA, saliva testing is being used for the reopening of educational institutions a smartphone-read portable, ultrasensitive and quantitative saliva test for COVID-19 has been developed which has a 15- min sample-to-answer time that does not require RNA isolation or laboratory equipment . . Recently, for Recently COVID-19 Saliva diagnosis: several studies the diagnostic potential of saliva for COVID-19 [3-10] and the following can be summarized reported have • standard SARS-CoV-2 viral load in saliva has been found to be either higher or equivalent as compared to nasopharyngeal swab test and saliva is likely to be constantly positive throughout the course of infection. SARS-CoV-2 • can in the saliva of be detected asymptomatic persons. • Several preliminary reports showed that the viral load in the saliva is comparable with that in sputum and sputum is superior to nasopharyngeal swabs in the detection of SARS- CoV-2 infection. • Overall median CT value in saliva samples was found to be higher than the nasopharyngeal swab. • Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in saliva have been found to reflect concentrations thus making saliva testing a good in serum asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 infection. Sci Rep. 2021;11(1):3134. Published 2021 Feb 4. doi:10.1038/ s41598-021-82787-z. 9. Rao M, Rashid FA, Sabri FSAH, et al. COVID-19 screening test by using random oropharyngeal saliva. J Med Virol. 2021;93(4):2461-2466. doi:10.1002/ jmv.26773. 10. Wyllie, Anne & Fournier, John & Casanovas-Massana, Arnau & Campbell, Melissa & Tokuyama, Maria & Vijayakumar, Pavithra & Geng, Bertie & Muenker, mary catherine & Moore, Adam & Vogels, Chantal & Petrone, Mary & Ott, Isabel & Lu, Peiwen & Venkataraman, Arvind & Lu-Culligan, Alice & Klein, Jonathan & Earnest, Rebecca & Simonov, Michael & Datta, Rupak & Ko, Albert. (2020). Saliva is more sensitive for SARS-CoV-2 detection in COVID-19 patients than nasopharyngeal swabs. 10.1101/2020.04.16.20067835. J, 11. Silva Lucas C, Sundaram M, et al. Saliva viral load is a dynamic unifying correlate of COVID-19 severity and mortality. Preprint. medRxiv. 2 0 2 1 ; 2 0 2 1 . 0 1 . 0 4 . 2 1 2 4 9 2 3 6 . Published 2021 Jan 10. doi:10.1101 /2021.01.04.21249236. 12. Chitguppi, Rajeev. (2020). Chlorhexidine gluconate is effective against the novel coronavirus & other viruses. 10.13140/RG.2.2.18594.99524. 13. Chitguppi, Rajeev, Mouth Rinses with Substantivity Can Prevent COVID-19 Spread and Protect the Healthcare Workers (June 30, 2020). Available at https://ssrn.com/ abstract=3638601 or http://dx.doi. org/10.2139/ssrn.3638601. SSRN: 14. Huang, YH, Huang, JT. Use of chlorhexidine to eradicate oropharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients. J Med Virol. 2021; 1- 4. https://doi.org/10.1002/ jmv.26954. A simple non-invasive saliva test could not only help in diagnosing COVID-19 cases but also help in evaluating the prognosis of patients. Monitoring salivary viral load could play a very significant role when the incorporation of convalescent serum in patients. considering It‘s time we prioritized saliva testing over swabs for COVID-19. (Image: canva.com) alternative to antibody testing. blood-based • has Saliva been suggested to be preferable for gauging than historical infection which could help in preventing unnecessarily prolonged isolation periods. rather active • that than Studies sputum) used methods involving clear saliva (rather and processing to reduce the viscosity showed (eg, homogenization) greater sensitivities relative to swabs. Methods requiring forceful production of saliva, such as by spitting or coughing instead of drooling, reduced sensitivity. Salivary viral load correlates with COVID-19 severity and mortality  • High salivary viral load was correlated with increasing levels of disease severity and showed a superior ability over nasopharyngeal viral load as a predictor of mortality over time. • High salivary viral load correlated with many known COVID-19 inflammatory markers such as IL-6, IL-18, IL-10, and type 1 immune response cytokines as well as with progressive depletion of platelets, lymphocytes, and effector T cell subsets including circulating follicular CD4 T cells. The salivary viral load has been found to be significantly higher in those with COVID- 19 risk factors such as older age, heart failure, cancer, and certain immunosuppression states, hypertension, and chronic lung disease as well as in males who have been known to be at a higher risk than females. • • High salivary viral loads required a higher antibody-to- virus ratio to successfully bring down viral load. Thus, monitoring salivary viral load could play a very significant role when considering the incorporation of convalescent serum in patients. Conclusion The Lancet states that “A single saliva sample can simultaneously enable the identification of active cases, previous cases, and vaccine- induced responses. Importantly, salivary antibody testing provides a scalable means for monitoring herd immunity in a post-vaccination world” . immune A simple non-invasive saliva test could not only help in diagnosing COVID-19 cases but also help in evaluating the prognosis of patients. Mouth rinses like chlorhexidine have been known to reduce the viral load in the oropharyngeal region [12,13,14] and the use of such rinses in patients diagnosed with high salivary viral load could help in reducing transmission of the virus as well as may help in improving the prognosis of patients by reducing the salivary viral load. Thus, a simple saliva test is much needed in these critical times. References 1. Lancet Respir Med 2021 Published Online April 19, 2021 https://doi.org/10.1016/ S2213- 2600(21)00178-8. 2. Ning B, Yu T, Zhang S, et al. A smartphone-read ultrasensitive and quantitative saliva test for COVID-19. Sci Adv. 2021;7(2):eabe3703. Published 2021 Jan 8. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abe3703. 3. Byrne RL, Kay GA, Kontogianni K, et al. Saliva Alternative to Upper Respiratory Swabs for SARS-CoV-2 Diagnosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(11):2769-2770. doi:10.3201/ eid2611.203283. or 5. 4. Hung KF, Sun YC, Chen BH, et al. New COVID- 19 saliva-based test: How good is it compared with the current nasopharyngeal throat swab test?. J Chin Med Assoc. 2020;83(10):891-894. doi:10.1097/ JCMA.0000000000000396. Butler-Laporte G, Lawandi A, Schiller I, et al. Comparison and Nasopharyngeal Swab Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing for Detection of SARS-CoV-2: A Systematic Review and Meta- [published correction analysis appears 10.1001/ j a m a i n t e r n m e d . 2 0 2 1. 0 2 4 5 ]. JAMA Med. 2021;181(3):353-360. doi:10.1001/ jamainternmed.2020.8876. Intern Saliva doi: in of 6. Babady NE, McMillen T, Jani K, et al. Performance of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Real-Time RT-PCR Tests on Oral Rinses and Saliva Samples. J Mol Diagn. 2021;23(1):3- 9. doi:10.1016/j.jmoldx.2020.10.018. 7. Wyllie AL, Fournier J, Casanovas-Massana A, et al. Saliva or Nasopharyngeal Swab Specimens for Detection of SARS-CoV-2. N Engl J 2020;383(13):1283-1286. Med. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2016359. 8. Teo AKJ, Choudhury Y, Tan IB, et al. Saliva is more sensitive than nasopharyngeal or nasal swabs for diagnosis of
3 News 05/21 WHO statement on airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 of an infected person in the form of particles ranging from larger respiratory droplets to smaller aerosols are inhaled or come in direct contact with the eyes, nose, or mouth of the person. • Close contact with an infected person typically within 1 meter (short-range). • Clinical settings where aerosol-generating procedures are performed increases the risk of aerosol transmission. • and and Although the presence of viral RNA may not represent replication infection (as a viable virus capable of transmission initiating invasive infection is required), the presence of viral RNA in air samples of clinical settings in the absence of aerosol-generating procedures as well as the presence of viable SARS-CoV-2 virus from air samples in the vicinity of COVID-19 patients warns the spread of infection in specific settings circumstances such as indoor, crowded and inadequately ventilated spaces. and virus • WHO has described the settings where the SARS- CoV-2 spreads more easily using “Three Cs” which represent Crowded places, Close- contact settings, and Confined and enclosed spaces with poor ventilation wherein the risk of COVID-19 spreading is especially high in places where these “3Cs” overlap. • Touching contaminated surfaces followed by touching the eyes, nose, or mouth without washing hands could also spread COVID-19 infection. Period of infectiousness of infected individuals : • Irrespective of whether asymptomatic (infected but never develops any symptoms) or pre- symptomatic (not yet developed develops symptoms symptoms infected individuals can be contagious and the virus can spread from them to other people. later), all but • The period just before individuals develop symptoms (namely two days before they develop symptoms), as well as the early phase of their illness, has been found to be the most infectious stage and people who develop severe disease could also be infectious for longer periods. Follow your “VOWS” reduce the risk of infection: to • V – Vaccination: When it’s your turn, get vaccinated and follow the vaccination guidelines. O – Opt to avoid the represent close-contact “Three Cs” which crowded places, • Infected people appear to be most infectious just before they develop symptoms (namely two days before they develop symptoms) and early in their illness. (Image: canva.com) by Dr Amisha Parekh, Dental Tribune South Asia The World communication on Health Organization (WHO) updated its the airborne transmission of SARS- CoV-2 on 30 April 2021. This article summarizes their current opinion. airborne SARS-CoV-2 The authors of the article Ten scientific reasons in support transmission of of published in The Lancet on April 15, 2021, concluded that „there is consistent, strong evidence that SARS-CoV-2 spreads by airborne transmission. Although other routes can contribute, we believe that the airborne route is likely to be dominant. The public health community should act accordingly and without further delay.“  On April 30, 2021, the WHO updated their original communication dated December 13, 2021, on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Here are the salient points: of Transmissibility the SARS-CoV-2 virus depends upon various factors such as the amount of viable virus being shed and expelled by a person, type of contact, and the settings and circumstances involved. • A person get infected when or droplets containing the virus released from the mouth or nose can aerosols confined settings, and and enclosed spaces with poor ventilation as well as avoid touching surfaces. • W - Wear a mask (well- fitting three-layer mask) and wash hands frequently with soap and water or alcohol-based hand rub. • S - Social distancing: Maintain at least a one meter distance from others. reasons References: 1. Greenhalgh T, Jimenez JL, Prather KA, Tufekci Z, Fisman D, Schooley R. Ten scientific in support of airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Lancet. 2021 May 1;397(10285):1603-1605. doi: 10.1016/S0140 - 6736(21)0 0869- 2. Epub 2021 Apr 15. PMID: 33865497; PMCID: PMC8049599. 2. Roadmap ensure in improve to and good indoor ventilation the context of COVID-19. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2021. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. https:// www.who.int/publications/i/ item/9789240021280. 3. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): How is it transmitted? ht t p s://w w w.who.i nt/n ews - room/q-a-detail/coronavirus- d i s e a s e - c o v i d -19 - h o w- i s - i t- transmitted. Ad LifeCare Devices Private LimitedNew Jubilee Building, Oﬃce no. 1Laxmiben Chheda Road, Nalasopara West, Palghar 401 203Mumbai Metropolitan RegionMaharashtra, INDIACustomer Service : +91 99304 50170Customer Service WhatsApp : +91 99304 50169Management WhatsApp : +91 99304 50163 +91 99997 86275
4 News 05/21 COVID-19 response by mobile apps in India facility available. Also, two apps had the function of confirmed cases with hot spot identification and contact tracing. technologies in tackling the Zika outbreak: A scoping review. J Public Health Emerg 2018; 2 : 1-20. Discussion Central Government, together with the state government, is involved in developing these apps used in the country.  Many functions like contact tracing, quarantine, self-assessment were common at state-level apps. The information technology ministry has successfully installed the Aarogya setu app, which is available in 11 languages.  It is essential and has been made compulsory for people to download the app so that the contact tracing is done efficiently. Also, the state-specific app should be encouraged to help at the local level. With the rising cases, it is vital to install teleconsultation also in these apps.  Some apps did not have functions that could help health care workers, like tracking types of equipment and compile clinical data as used in other countries.  As these apps use Bluetooth connectivity, it can pose a risk for national security and user privacy. To counter this, Singapore has shared the app source code with the researchers for independent review.  Argentina is using apps that collect and record only the Bluetooth interaction.  To prevent that, the Indian government address these concerns to the public and gather trust to set up these apps at a larger scale.  should This is an excellent step by the government of India for the COVID-19 m-health initiative. These apps are a source of providing disease-related information and knowledge at a larger level.  Conclusion For a country like India with a huge population and limited resources for testing, these apps will immensely aid in identifying the spots and individuals at risk at a faster level. References 1. Mohanty B, Chughtai A, Rabhi F. Use of Mobile Apps for surveillance epidemic and response – Availability and gaps. Glob Biosecurity : 37. Available from: 2019; 1 https:// jglobalbiosecurity. com/article/10.31646/gbio.39/, accessed on April 8, 2020. 2. Ahmadi S, Bempong NE, De Santis O, Sheath D, Flahault A. The role of digital 3. Dujmovic J. Wildly popular coronavirus-tracker app helps South Koreans steer clear of outbreak areas. Market Watch; 2020. Available from: ht t p s://w w w.m a rk e t wat c h . com/story/ wildly-popular- coronavirus-tracker-app-helps- south-Koreans -steer-clear- of-outbreak-areas-2020-03-18, accessed on April 11, 2020 4. World Health Organization. WHO guideline: Recommendations on digital interventions for health system strengthening. Geneva: WHO; 2019. 5. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Telemedicine practice guideline: Enabling registered medical practitioners to provide healthcare using telemedicine. Available https:// w w w. m o h f w. g o v. i n /p d f / Telemedicine. Accessed on April 12, 2020. from: 6. Wood CS, Thomas MR, Budd J, et al. Taking connected mobile-health diagnostics of infectious diseases to the field. Nature 2019; 566(7745): 467-74. Dr. Anil Chandra Dr. Anil Chandra, Dean, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Department of Conservative and Endodontics, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow Dr. Mohd Parvez Khan Department Dr. Mohd Parvez Khan, Professor, of Anesthesia and critical care, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow 7. Lavallee DC, Lee JR, Austin E, et al. mHealth and patient generated health data: stakeholder perspectives on opportunities barriers for transforming healthcare. Mhealth 2020; 6: 8. and 8. Morley J, Floridi L. The limits of empowerment: how to reframe the role of mHealth tools in the healthcare ecosystem. Science Eng Ethics 2019: 1-25. Authors: Dr. Nilesh Pardhe Dr. Nilesh Pardhe, Zonal Clinical Head, Clove Dental, Rajasthan - Jaipur Dr. Priyanka Singh Dr Pradkhshana Vijay Dr. Pradakhshana Vijay, Senior Resident, Department of Oral Pathology, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow Dr. Priyanka Singh, Associate Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow Corresponding author: Dr. Nilesh Pardhe. Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org For a country like India with a huge population and limited resources for testing, these apps will immensely aid in identifying the spots and individuals at risk at a faster level. (Image: canva.com) by Dr Nilesh Pardhe et al. in managing The possible benefits by which one can use mobile applications (apps) for contact tracking the COVID-19 pandemic have been discovered. Various mobile apps have been developed and permitted by the Central and State Govt. and some medical organizations for controlling COVID-19. India has launched the Arogya setu ap p, the first of its kind in disease surveillance initiative used. This study provides a systematic review of mobile apps used in the COVID- 19 pandemic and focuses on developing future e-healthcare services. Introduction COVID-19 pandemic has spread to around 213 countries worldwide. Due to the lack of medical management for COVID- 19 at present, the main focus on preventing spread by the public is by following physical distancing, hand hygiene practice and face mask to slow its spread.  The confirmed COVID-19 cases are advised home quarantine or hospital quarantine based on the severity of the infection with contact tracing. India reported its first COVID-19 case on 30 January 2020, with 257,192 confirmed cases and 7,207 deaths. Central Govt. nationwide lockdown on 24 March 2020, followed by vigorous testing and contact tracing.  Conventional systems used previously have not been designed to meet challenges like the one posed by the COVID- 19 pandemic. [2, 3] Modern digital technology presents the possibility of improving health care efficiency in response to the epidemic. Such mobile health applications have been used previously during Ebola and Zika virus breakdown. Now is the time to update our digital surveillance system to help imposed control the existing pandemic and avoid any such incidence in the near future.  National Informatics Center, Government of India, developed and launched the Aarogya setu app to track COVID-19 in April 2020.  Various healthcare agencies in India have developed other apps to raise awareness, follow up of quarantined people, and enforce lockdown. [1, 3] the study: To Aim of and systematically review mobile apps related to the COVID-19 pandemic in India. identify Materials and Methods The iOS and android app searched with stores were keywords like a pandemic, novel coronavirus, COVID-19. The search was done from the first week of December 2020 to the Last week of January 2021. The screening was based on app titles with their description. The gaming apps, apps on infections or disease not specific to COVID- 19, and apps without English/ Hindi language were excluded. Results Around 300 COVID-19 apps were included; 30 met the inclusion criteria. 270 apps were excluded as they didn’t focus on COVID-19 infections, few were gaming apps, and some without an English/ Hindi language interface. Only free apps without in- app purchases were included. About 27 apps were for common public use, 2 for the quarantined foreigners, and one was for healthcare workers. Out of the fourteen apps quarantined developed people, one had a self-asses for sment tool, six had telephonic helplines, five had a function of questions and answers related to age, travel, underlying medical condition, and symptoms, and two had an electronic e pass
6 News 05/21 Clean-O-Denture – a device to improve denture hygiene by Dr Pranit Bora et al. Numerous products are available in the market to clean the dentures but inconclusive outcomes of these products discourage the population to use them as a routine denture hygiene measure. So in order to address these issues, a device combing all possible features of cleaning denture is designed to attain conclusive outcomes. Why did you create it? Deprived denture hygiene is associated with a dearth of guidance, intrinsic characteristics of the denture, and weakened manual dexterity of most denture wearers due to old age. Poor denture hygiene leads to an accumulation of biofilm, which is a dense microbial layer. It has also been suggested that oral microorganisms are allied with systemic disease and that dentures epitomize a reservoir for these microorganisms. Denture plaque is associated not only with oral diseases, such as denture stomatitis, periodontitis, and caries, but also systemic diseases, including aspiration pneumonia, gastrointestinal infection, and pleural infection. Thus, effective denture plaque control is vital to avert these infections, especially in elderly people. To meet these prerequisites of cleaning denture numerous products are available in the market but inconclusive outcomes of these products discourage the population to use them as a routine denture hygiene measure. So in order to address these issues, a device combing all three measures of cleaning denture is designed so as to attain conclusive outcomes. What problem does address and solve? it Figure 1 – Showing Entire Assembly Along With Provisional Storage Facility. Although dentists tend to objectively evaluate denture cleanliness, elderly patients often show little interest in the matter. The device contains features combining the multiple requirements of denture users. (Image: canva.com) Moreover, denture brushing is often challenging for older and physically impaired denture wearers. and There are three methods of denture cleaning: mechanical, chemical, ultrasonic. The mechanical method uses brushes, the chemical method involves soaking the denture in cleansers, and the ultrasonic involves method the use of ultrasonic devices. An amalgamation of all is denture cleaning methods improving more effective at objective denture cleanliness than the mechanical method alone. Although a combination of mechanical and chemical methods reduces the abundance of biofilm on dentures to a greater extent has been proven in various studies. So a device combing all the methods in order to give irrefutable results has been developed. How did you test it? Figure 2- UV Storage And Display Screen The efficacy of denture washers has been tested in three different stages. 1. A study was conducted in patients reporting with the old set of dentures to Dept of Prosthodontics, K. M. Shah Vadodara Dental underwent cleaning this prototyped device, and cleaning efficacy was tested. College, in review regarding 2. A prototyped device was presented to an old age home. The process was shown to denture wearers and caretakers. Their the device was recorded. The main concern of caretakers, like the spread of splatter and obnoxious feeling while cleaning dentures was taken care of by this device. As well people having issues with manual dexterity found the device accessible and stress-free to handle. 3. Study regarding pre and post microbiological load is been undergoing results are awaited. Tell us something about its current status and your future plans A prototype device has been devised and has been tested for cleaning efficacy, and the device has been applied for a design patent. Further product and commercialization will be done with the financial support of startups and entrepreneurs. development Authors: Dr. Pranit Bora Dr. Tabassumben Mansuri Dr. Pranit Bora is currently pursuing MDS in Prosthodontics, crown & bridge at KM Shah Dental College & Hospital, Vadodara. Dr. Tabassumben Mansuri is currently pursuing MDS in Prosthodontics, crown & bridge at KM Shah Dental College & Hospital, Vadodara. Dr. Rajesh Sethuraman Dr. Meet Shah Dr. Rajesh Sethuraman is currently Professor, HOD, and Additional Dean at KM Shah Dental College & Hospital, Vadodara. Dr. Meet Shah is currently pursuing MDS in Prosthodontics, crown & bridge at KM Shah Dental College & Hospital, Vadodara.
Sydney, Australia 26-29 September 2021 Broadcast from the International Convention Centre 4 day Streamed Scientiﬁc Programme 200+ sessions on-demand for an extended period of 60 days High quality International and Local presenters Europe, America, Africa, Middle East, Asia, Australia & New Zealand Extensive virtual Exhibition with product demonstrations Meet the exhibitor’s in a virtual showroom Interact live with speakers, ask questions Passport competition with great prizes Australian CPD Requirements Dental practitioners in Australia are required to complete a minimum of 60 hours of CPD activities over a three-year CPD cycle (current cycle ends Wednesday 30th November 2022). ADA CERP The FDI World Dental Association is an ADA CERP Recognised Provider. ADA CERP is a service of the American Dental Association to assist dental professionals in identifying quality providers of continuing dental education. ADA CERP does not approve or endorse individual courses or instructors, nor does it imply acceptance of credit hours by boards of dentistry. This continuing education activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the standards of the American Dental Association Continuing Education Recognition (ADA CERP) through joint efforts between FDI World Dental Association and the Australian Dental Association. Concerns or complaints about a CE provider may be directed to the provider or to the Commission for Continuing Education Provider Recognition at ADA.org/CERP. Educating for Dental Excellence www.world-dental-congress.org