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Dental Tribune U.S. Edition

Dental Tribune U.S. Edition | February 2012 A11iNdustry cliNical C olorindentistryusuallyisdefined using shade guides based on the 1898 theory of American painter Albert Henry Munsell, which Clark applied to dentistry in 1930. Accord- ing to this theory, color is composed of three dimensions: hue, chroma and value. Actually, tooth color is the complex re- sult of several factors that must be care- fully analyzed to understand the unique features that characterize an individual pa- tient’s teeth, and precise matching seems impossible through traditional methods. To determine tooth color, it is necessary to abandon the classical shade guides and, along with them, customary shade-taking habits in favor of performing a higher level of analysis. I call this approach Doctor Van- ini’s Color Theory. The tooth color that we normally see is a function of the physical properties of den- tin and enamel, and their interaction with light. Ena HRi (Micerium S.p.A., Avegno, Ita- ly) composite enamel, thanks to the refrac- tive index of 1.62, has an optical behavior quite similar to that of natural enamel; and increasing its thickness, increases the val- ue. With this enamel it is possible to man- age the relationship translucency-value and the esthetic integration better because light passes through two bodies (natural enamel and composite enamel), which have the same refractive index. In this way, there is no light deviation, which is a prob- lem that from a clinical point of view is shown with a gray line on the margin. To properly determine tooth color, den- tists must be able to look deeply into the tooth structures and identify the five color dimensions and chromatic chords. To fa- cilitate this process, we need a light with a constant color temperature of 5,000° K. Additionally, the use of digital photogra- phy is fundamental to the analysis because it quickly enables a deeper examination of the tooth on a computer and a more accu- rate understanding of the different color dimensions. All tooth-color information must be re- corded in a simple manner, and for this purpose, the author developed a specific color-mapping chart for researching and identifying the five color-dimensions and specific materials to be used. The front of thechart(Fig.1)outlinespatientdetails.The five color-dimensions are indicated on the left, while the identification initials of the composite system materials (i.e., enamel, dentin) to be used to reproduce the chro- matic chords of the color dimensions are on the right. The back of the chart (Fig. 2) shows the classification of intensives, opalescents and characterizations. Each dimension refers to age biotypes, and each biotype predicts recurring dimensions for shape and chro- matic saturation. Editor's note: This is a brief summary of Dr. Vanini's color theory. A full version of his article, with multiple illustrations, is avail- able on Color theory moves beyond classic shade guide for natural restorations New approach uses five color dimensions, chromatic chords, patient age and digital photos By lorenzo Vanini, DDS, MD loREnZo VAnInI, DDS, MD, is professor of re- storative dentistry at the University La Sapienza in Rome, Italy, and visiting professor of restorative dentistry at the Univer- sity De La Mediterranee in Marseilles, France. He also privately teaches courses, including some sponsored by Micerium. He can be contacted by e-mail at Ad Figs. 1, 2 Front and back of Vanini color chart. Learning the Vanini philosophy AttheSaStrainingcenterinSanFedele Intelvi, Italy, near Como, we organize several courses on teeth restoration. Participants assist in a live treatment and a hands-on session with models to test the “five tooth-color dimensions” philosophy. Fig. 1 Fig. 2